Title: Intra-body communication networks: state of the art and future perspectives
Abstract: Intra-body communication (IBC) is a novel key research area that will transform the next generation of healthcare technologies by in situ testing of physiological conditions, personalized medicine and proactive and targeted drug delivery. Intra-body networking (IBN) is the paradigm that interconnects the implants and allows them to transmit measurements to an external centre for real time processing and monitoring and to send commands to embedded actuators. Energy efficient and safe communication among implants, body sensors and external devices is thus required.
The tutorial presents novel and biocompatible communication technologies for intra-body area networks that use the human body as a medium for data communication. In particular, ultrasounds and coupling techniques will be discussed with the specific aim of overcoming the limitations and weaknesses of the currently employed radio frequency technologies such as IEEE 802.15.4 and IEEE 802.15.6. After describing the unique features of the human tissues and the basics on ultrasounds and coupling physics, the design aspects for IBNs will be discussed; then, protocols and architectures to support intra-body communication and networking in order to send biomedical data over tissues will be illustrated. To this purpose relevant literature in the field will be discussed with particular attention to medical applications and practical aspects. Experimental testbeds and activities in this field will be discussed by shading light on their high technology readiness level.
- LAURA GALLUCCIO received her Laurea degree in Electrical Engineering from University of Catania, Italy, in 2001. In March 2005 she got her Ph.D. in Electrical, Computer and Telecommunications Engineering at the same university under the guidance of Prof. Sergio Palazzo. Since 2002 she is also at the Italian National Consortium of Telecommunications (CNIT), where she worked as a Research Fellow within the VICOM (Virtual Immersive Communications) and the SATNEX Projects. Since November 2010 to October 2019 she has been Assistant Professor at University of Catania. From November 2019 she is Associate professor at the same university. Her research interests include unconventional networks including ultrasonic and microfluidic networks, ad hoc and sensor networks in general, protocols and algorithms for wireless networks, and network performance analysis. From May to July 2005 she has been Visiting Scholar at the COMET Group, Columbia University, NY working with Prof. Andrew T. Campbell. In September 2015 she has been Visiting Professor at Central Supelec, Gif-sur-Yvette, Paris. She is senior member of the IEEE. Dr. Galluccio is and has been Leading Guest Editor of Elsevier Journals, and IEEE Magazines. She serves and has served in the Editorial Board of IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, Elsevier Computer Networks, IEEE Communication Letters, Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing (WCMC), and Elsevier Ad Hoc Networks Journal. She has been involved in the Organizing Committee and TPCs of numerous conferences such as ACM NanoCom 2020 (TPC Co-Chair), ACM MobiHoc 2019 (Local Arrangment Chair and Workshop Co- Chair), European Wireless 2018 (General Co-Chair), European Wireless 2017 (Workshop Chair), First International Workshop on Smart network Technologies and Edge computing for the Tactile Internet (STET 2018), jointly held with IEEE NetSoft 2018 (Co-chair), International Workshop on Network Intelligence (NI 2019) Machine Learning for Networking, jointly held with IEEE Infocom 2019 (TPC Co-chair), International Workshop on Network Intelligence “Learning and Optimizing Future Networks” (NI 2020) jointly held with IEEE Infocom 2020 (TPC Co-Chair), Unconventional Intrabody Communication in Bodynets 2014 and 2015 (Special Track organizer).She serves/has served also in the TPC of prestigious conferences such as IEEE Infocom, Globecom and ICC. She was awarded the Best Paper award by the IEEE Communications Society e-health Technical Committee in 2017 for the paper G. Castorina, L. Galluccio, S. Palazzo, “On modeling information spreading in bacterial nano-networks based on plasmid conjugation” IEEE Trans. on Nanobioscience, Vol. 15, No. 6, 2016. She is co-author of two international patents in the field of Unconventional ultrasonic communications.
- ANNA VIZZIELLO received the Laurea degree in electronic engineering and the Ph.D. degree in electronics and computer science from the University of Pavia, Italy, in 2007 and in 2011, respectively. Currently she is a Senior Research Associate with the Telecommunication and Remote Sensing Laboratory, University of Pavia, Italy, under the Research Grant on “Intra-body communication systems for nervous signal transmissions”. In 2015-2017 she was working on communication algorithms for N-RFID network within the national PRIN GRETA Project and in 2014- 2016 she was involved in a collaboration with SIAE microelettronica company for a high data rate modem design. She has been Visiting Researcher in several universities: in 2011 and 2016 she was with Northeastern University, Boston, MA, working on communications for implanted sensors; from 2009 to 2010 with the Broadband Wireless Networking Lab, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, under the supervision of Prof. I. F. Akyildiz, and in 2009 and 2010 with the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain, on the subject of cognitive radio networks in the European FP7 FARAMIR Project. From 2007 to 2009, she collaborated as researcher with the European Centre for Training and Research in Earth quake Engineering (EUCENTRE) for biomedical data transmission within the EU PROETEX Project and an Italy-Turkey FIRB Project. Since 2013 she collaborates with the European Commission as Referee for the peer evaluation process of the proposals for FET call and H2020 ICT call. She has been included in the 2018 list of “N2Women: Rising Stars in Computer Networking and Communications” for outstanding and impactful contributions in the area of networking/communications, supported by the IEEE Communication Society. She is senior member of the IEEE. In 2017-2018 she has been Guest Editor for the Special Issue “Internet of Wearable and Implantable Medical Things: Theory and Applications” – Sensors Journal, and currently is Associate Editor on IET Electronics Letters and Executive Editor on Transactions on Emerging Telecommunications Technologies. She has been invited to deliver talks on the subject of “Wireless Networks of Sensors and Implants”, including UPC, Barcelona, Spain, April 9-13, 2018 and Centre for Health Technologies, Pavia, Italy, October 13, 2016, among the others. Dr. Vizziello has been involved in several research projects and published her research in international journals and conferences, on the topic of intra-body networks, 5G radio technologies, cognitive and wireless sensor networks. She has been often involved as Technical Program Committee (TPC) member of several international conferences (more than thirty), such as such as IEEE ICC 2021, ACM NanoCom2020, IEEE ICC 2018, IEEE GLOBECOM 2017, IEEE VTC Spring 2017, IEEE INFOCOM 2014.
- PIETRO SAVAZZI received his Laurea degree in Electronics Engineering and Ph.D. degree in Electronics and Computer Science from the University of Pavia, Italy, in 1995 and in 1999, respectively. In 1999, he joined Ericsson Lab Italy, in Milan, as a system designer, working on broadband microwave systems. In 2001, he moved to Marconi Mobile, Genoa, Italy, as a system designer in the field of 3G wireless systems. Since 2003, he has been working at the University of Pavia where he is currently teaching courses on signal processing, wireless communications, and wireless sensor networks for biomedical applications. His main research interests are in wireless communications and sensor systems, with a focus on modulation and coding, adaptive signal processing, MIMO architectures, intra-body networks, and wearable wireless sensors. During his research activities, he has been involved in several research projects and contracts, some of them as the principal investigator. He authored more than 70 papers, in both international journals and conferences, and one patent. He is or has been a member of the Technical Program Committee for several conferences like, for instance, IEEE International Conference on Wireless for Space and Extreme Environments (WiSEE), IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, IEEE Sensors. He served as a frequent reviewer for several international conferences and journals, including IEEE Transactions on Communications, IEEE Access, IEEE Communications Letters, IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on Green Communications and Networking, IEEE Sensors Journal, IEEE ICC and Globecom conferences. Since 2018, he has been serving as an associate editor for IEEE Access.
Title: Machine Learning for 5G/B5G Non-Terrestrial Networks
Abstract: This tutorial provides an overview of the emerging ML/AI applications and related opportunities, challenges and possible standardization activities for the integrated non- terrestrial networking components with beyond 5G and 6G wireless networks. Beyond 5G and 6G wireless networks provide high data rates, lower end-to-end latency, massive device connectivity, and consistent user quality of experience provisioning. The Roadmap of 5G enablers include Internet of Things (IoT) and machine to machine (M2M) services and expected to transform the way we live and work. In addition, 6G research and development will be impacted to some extent by the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals. The key components of non-terrestrial networks include satellite systems, drones/UAVs and high- altitude platform services (HAPS). These components are uniquely positioned to provide a solution to the future networks by integrating beyond 5G and 6G. They will play a significant role as a complementary solution for ubiquitous coverage, broadcast provision, emergency /disaster recovery and remote and rural areas coverage.
This tutorial will cover the fundamental concepts of basic machine learning algorithms including supervised, unsupervised and reinforcement learning. It will elaborate on the classification of ML applications in the areas including physical layer communication, network planning & routing, security and resource management. In general, machine learning techniques are replacing the traditional pre-programmed models that are optimized and generated based on certain assumptions. Specifically, ML algorithms are able to encase several constraints and learn from the environment, for example routing paths with LEO satellites can be adjusted based on routing re-computation time, satellite altitude, inter-satellite links, input/output packet rates, direction of inter-satellite link, etc. This tutorial will consider several such examples and emphasize on the different factors that facilitate the ML usage. The tutorial will also cover the challenges in advancing ML techniques for 5G/B5G non-terrestrial networks and provide future research directions for how ML can contribute to realizing the integration of non-terrestrial components into 5G/B5G.
This tutorial also includes a seamless integration of non-terrestrial networking components into B5G as a complementary solution to the terrestrial networks, due to its ubiquitous coverage, and broadcast/multicast nature in rural and urban areas. Various satellite system design options including LEO/MEO/GEO and spectrum bands of Ka/Q/V are discussed. The new LEO mega constellation systems are described. The tutorial also discusses the use of ML tools for the resource allocation in LEO satellites considering LEO specific concerns such as constrained energy, mobility characteristics, dynamics of connections and transmissions, etc. The potential use of integrated architectures with application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) and High- Altitude Platforms (HAPs) are briefly described. Further, to advance technologies for future networks, it is also critically important to standardize AI/ML applications and methods to measure performance and to create benchmarking for these strategies. This tutorial will also provide an overview on the possible standardization efforts by IEEE Roadmap, ITU-T/R, 5GPP, 3GPPP in this direction.
- Dr. Sastri L. Kota is President of SoHum Consultants and Adjunct Professor in University of Oulu, Finland. He has more than 40 years of systems engineering experience. Dr. Kota’s major contributions span three segments of Satellite and Space sector, including system development, International Standardization and research and teaching. He held technical and management positions at Harris, Loral Space, Lockheed Martin, SRI International, the MITRE Corp, Xerox Corp. and Computer Science Corp. He contributed to satellite and wireless communication network systems, digital video broadcasting, mobile communications, broadband internet and hybrid networks to commercial and defense programs. His entrepreneur efforts included as a chief network architect of IP satellite network for Broadband Multimedia Services (BMS) and was responsible for networking aspects of Ka- band satellite called Astrolink. He provided leadership in international standardization of broadband satellite networks as head of the U.S. delegation and the U.S. chair of the ITU-R Working group developing recommendations for FSS, MSS and BSS. He also led the wireless ATM of the ATM Forum. Currently, Dr. Kota, as a Working Group Co-Chair leads 5G Satellite, an IEEE Future Network Initiative. He has authored and co-authored 200 papers in conference proceedings and journals, and five books: Broadband Satellite Communications for Internet Access; Emerging Location Aware Broadband Wireless Ad Hoc Networks; Satellite TCP/IP in High Performance Networking; Trends in Broadband Networking in Wiley Encyclopedia of Telecommunications; and Modeling and Simulation Environment for Satellite and Terrestrial Communication Networks. Dr. Kota conducted a lecture series and tutorials on computer networking, broadband satellite networks, digital video broadcasting at MILCOM, IEEE, and AIAA conferences; University of Oulu Finland, LNMIT, and MNIT, Jaipur, India; University of Sienna, Italy, and University of Catalunya, Spain. He was a lecturer for five years at IIT, Roorkee, India. Dr. Kota served as a guest editor of special issues for IEEE Communications, Wireless, VTS, International Journal of Satellite Communications and Networking, Space Communications, and Wireless Information Networks. Dr. Kota was a keynote speaker at conferences and symposiums and served as an Unclassified Technical Program Chair/Executive Member of MILCOM 2007, 2004, and 1997. He also served as Symposium Co-Chair of IEEE GLOBECOM, Technical Chair of ISWPC2007, Technical committees and Workshop Chair/Invited Sessions Chair of ICC, PIMRC, and IWSSC. He was also the organizer and chair for ICSSC/AIAA conferences. He received IEEE Communications Society, Satellite and Space Communications Technical Committee (SSC) Distinguished Service Award. He was selected as a Fulbright Specialist by the U.S. Department of State and received the Golden Quill Awards from Harris Corporation for Project Leadership and publications in the field of Broadband Satellite Communications for Internet and Assured Communications. Dr. Kota holds a Ph. D from University of Oulu, Finland, an Engineer’s Degree from Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts, and an MSEE from IIT, Roorkee, India. He is a Life Senior Member of IEEE and an Associate Fellow of AIAA.
- Dr. Paresh Saxena is an Assistant Professor in the Dpt. of Computer Science & Information Systems, BITS-Pilani, Hyderabad, India. He is currently leading a project MUT-DROCO (Multipath Networking Testbed for Drone Communications) funded by DST-SERB, Govt. of India and a project NANCY (Neural Adaptive Network Coding for video transmission over wireless networks) funded by TCS, India. Previously, he has been involved as a work package leader in two European Space Agency (ESA) funded projects: SatNetCode and HENCSAT, along with a work package member in European H2020 funded project Geo-Vision. He was a member of European COST action IC1104 from 2013-2016 and worked on the project funded by MITACS, Canada in 2008. He has been a visiting researcher in SFU, Vancouver, Canada in 2008 and Telecom ParisTech, Paris in 2010. During his PhD from UAB, Barcelona, Spain, he was awarded UAB Doctoral Fellowship Grant (P.I.F) from 2011-2015. Prior to his graduation, he was awarded with a National Talent Search Examination (NTSE) scholarship, India where he scored overall 11th rank in the country. His primary research focus is on the design and implementation of reliable and robust data transfer protocols for non-terrestrial networks. His current research interests are in the applications of machine learning for non-terrestrial networks.